Cameras have several different shooting modes. The two most common for landscape photography is aperture priority and manual. Which one is the better choice?
In my latest video, I discuss this topic and spoiler, neither is better but both have their pros in different conditions. Besides the conditions, the design of your camera can also influence, which one is the easiest mode to use. I use aperture priority in about 80-90% of my photography. It is very easy only having to set your aperture and you are ready to shoot. The camera automatically finds the desired shutter speed based on your exposure compensation setting. The ISO is usually always at base ISO, so I do not have to set it when I turn on the camera.
If you have followed my videos for long, you know I usually shoot in aperture priority in forest scenes. Generally, aperture priority works great for scenes where the light does not change between exposing for the scene and photographing the scene – this is the case for most scenes. It is beneficial to use both the histogram and zebra stripes to make sure you do not over or underexpose, however, being in aperture priority with the exposure compensation set to 0, this is easy to avoid unless you are photographing in very high contrast scenes. In such a case, you will probably need to bracket. In flat scenes with a lot of fog (as in the above video and below photo) and snow, you usually want to turn your exposure compensation to +1 as to not get a flat gray scene but capture the whites of the fog and snow.
This also means if you are walking around and constantly change your scene or the light changes over the period you are photographing, you do not have to change the shutter speed when you turn on the camera. The camera is ready to shoot once it has metered the scene. In some cases, you might have to change the exposure compensation (effectively the shutter speed) a bit to preserve some highlights, but usually, it is not the case.
Aperture priority is also great if you need to adjust to certain conditions fast. If you want to capture some birds flying into the scene, it is much faster to just adjust the ISO and let the camera automatically find the appropriate shutter speed, instead of having to both adjust the ISO and shutter speed. The birds have probably left the scene before you have the correct exposure. That is what I did in the below photo. I noticed the birds flying towards my scene and changed the ISO to 1600 from 100, which gave me a shutter speed of 1/640 to make sure the birds came out nice and sharp.
Scenes With Water
I typically use manual mode, when I need to make sure the shutter speed does not change between exposing for a scene and actually photographing. This could happen in scenes with waves and there are actually several reasons for shooting in manual.
First, I want to make sure the shutter speed stays the same to keep a specific look to the streaks of water you can capture when the waves break. If the shutter speed changes just a stop of light, you can end up with only half of the desired effect – half as long streaks. In the photo below, I needed a very specific shutter speed (1/3 second) to get the desired "explosive" effect from the waves crashing into the rocks.
Secondly, in case you are in a position where water splashes up onto the front element of your scene, I start by finding the optimal settings, focus, and composition and change the camera to continuous shooting, dry off the front element, and keep covering the lens with the cloth. Once I am ready to get the shot, I start photographing by keeping the shutter down and then I remove the cloth. The first few photos without the cloth ought to be clean of water spray or droplets.
Had I been doing this in aperture priority the camera would have metered for the darkness created by the cloth. Once I remove the cloth, the camera would have to re-meter for the light in the scene with the result of the first few photos being overexposed. This is the technique I used in the below photo.
There are many other reasons to use both aperture priority and manual. Be sure to check out the video above and let me hear, which one mode you prefer and why.